Los constructos políticos de “mundo ruso” y “fraternidad eslava” a la luz de la invasión de Ucrania de 2022: el caso de Serbia

Autores/as

  • Antonio Francisco Rando Casermeiro UNIVERSIDAD DE MALAGA

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24201/fi.v62i4.2913

Palabras clave:

Balcanes occidentales, Serbia, Rusia, invasión rusa de Ucrania, mundo ruso, fraternidad eslava

Resumen

La Federación Rusa utiliza dos herramientas para posibilitar o acrecentar su influencia, en especial en el ámbito eslavo: el “mundo ruso” y el constructo de la “fraternidad eslava”. La primera presenta dos manifestaciones: en primer lugar, la protección de las minorías rusas en un área que considera de influencia rusa (Transnistria en Moldavia, Osetia del Sur y Abjasia en Georgia, Crimea y el Dombás en Ucrania); en segundo lugar, al negar a ciertos Estados eslavos su carácter nacional, éstos pasan a ser considerados rusos, o una forma de serlo (Bielorrusia, Ucrania). En ambos casos, el corolario es un derecho de intervención para proteger a las minorías rusas.

En cuanto a la “fraternidad eslava”, el constructo se aplica a otros pueblos que, si bien no se consideran rusos, son para Rusia “hermanos eslavos”: es el caso de Serbia, que se aborda en el presente estudio. Así, la invención de la idea de una “fraternidad eslava” secular, de protección a la nación serbia, sirve a Rusia –en especial, desde la guerra de Kosovo– para incrementar su influencia en grandes sectores de la opinión pública serbia.

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