Populismo y política exterior: India hacia Israel

Autores/as

  • E. Alitzel Verspecht Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen KU Leuven
  • Marta Tawil El Colegio de México, A. C.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24201/fi.v62i2.2897

Palabras clave:

populismo, política exterior, concepción de papel nacional, India, Israel, Palestina, relaciones internacionales

Resumen

En este artículo se estudian los elementos propios de una estrategia populista de política exterior, tomando el caso de las relaciones entre India e Israel a partir de la llegada al poder de Narendra Modi, en 2014. Se argumenta que una estrategia de política exterior es populista cuando: 1) apela a la voluntad del pueblo; 2) incorpora un discurso en el que se acentúa la confrontación entre el “Otro” y las élites con el pueblo; 3) se centralizan las decisiones, y 4) procura mostrar congruencia de las acciones con la concepción del papel nacional que legitima esas decisiones. Se plantea igualmente que una estrategia populista en política exterior se forja a partir de cálculos muy complejos, en los que se contemplan presiones nacionales e internacionales.

Citas

“2021 Military Strength Ranking”, Global Fire Power, 2021, https://bit.ly/3A9b4Aa (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

ALDEN, C. y Ammon ARAN, Foreign Policy Analysis: New Approaches (2ª ed.), Nueva York, Routledge, 2017.

Amnesty International, “India”, Amnesty International Report 2003, https://bit.ly/2VroXej (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

BAIER, W., “Europe at the Crossroads: Right Populism and Reactionary Rebellion”, en Leon Panitch y Greg Albo (eds.), The Politics of the Right, Nueva York, NYU Press, 2015, pp. 68-90.

BAJPAI, Kanti y Harsh PANT, India’s Foreign Policy: A Reader, Nueva Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2013.

BASRUR, Rajesh, “Modi’s Foreign Policy Fundamentals: a Trajectory Unchanged”. International Affairs, vol. 93, 2017, pp. 9-12, https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iiw006

BEASLEY, R. K. et al., “Role Theory, Foreign Policy, and the Social Construction of Sovereignty: Brexit Stage Right”, Global Studies Quarterly, vol. 1 (1), 2021, https://doi-org.kuleuven.e-bronnen.be/10.1093/isagsq/ksab001

BISWAS, Soutik, “Why Narendra Modi hugs the headlines”, BBC (29 de septiembre de 2015) https://bbc.in/3lmjU9Q (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

BLAREL, Nicolas, “The Partnership that Dare not Speak its Name?”, en Sumit Ganguly, (ed.) Engaging the World: Indian Foreign Policy since 1947, Nueva Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 352-374, 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199458325.003.0014

BOONE, Jon, “Narendra Modi labels Pakistan ‘mothership of terrorism’ ”, The Guardian, 16 de octubre de 2016, https://bit.lª/3A2OtFF (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

BORSCHEL-DAN, Amanda, “In Calcutta, tens of thousands at pro-Israel rally by far-right Hindu movement”, The Times of Israel, 15 de febrero de 2018, https://bit.ly/3CdLhcf (consulta 31 de julio de 2021).

BROWN, N.A.K., “A Perspective on India-Israel Defence and security ties”, Strategic Analysis, vol. 41, 2017, pp. 325-335, https://doi.org/10.1080/09700161.2017.1330934

BUZAN, Barry y Ole WAEVER, Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security, Cambridge, University Press, 2003.

CALABRESE, John, “India-Gulf Migration: A Testing Time”, Middle East Institute, 14 de abril de 2020, https://bit.ly/35ed14t (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

CANOVAN, Margaret, “Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy”, Political Studies, XLVII, 1999, p. 4.

CANTIR, Cristian y Juliet KAARBO, “Contested Roles and Domestic Politics: Reflections on Role Theory in Foreign Policy Analysis and IR Theory”, Foreign Policy Analysis, vol 8 (1), 2012, pp. 5-24, https://doi-org.kuleuven.e-bronnen.be/10.1111/j.1743-8594.2011.00156.x

CHAFETZ, Glenn et. al, “Role Theory and Foreign Policy: Belarussian and Ukranian Compliance with the Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime”, Political Psychology, vol. 17, 1996, pp. 727-757.

CHRYSSOGELOS, Angelos, “Populism in Foreign Policy” en Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, Oxford, University Press, 2017.

COWSHISH, Amit, “India-Israel Defence Trade: Issues and Challenges”, Strategic Analysis, vol. 41, 2017, pp. 401-412, https://doi.org/10.1080/09700161.2017.1330445

DAVIDOVICH, Joshua, “In Modi’s home state, cheering crowds for Netanyahu flaunt India-Israel romance”, The Times of Israel, 17 de enero de 2018, https://bit.ly/2WQaCbY (consulta 31 de julio de 2021).

DE LA TORRE, Carlos, “The People, Populism, and the Leader’s Semi-embodied power”, Rubrica Contemporánea, vol. 2, 2013, pp. 5-20, 10.5565/rev/rubrica.33

“‘Dear Mr. Modi, I love you’: 26/11 child survivor Moshe meets PM in Israel”, The Times of India, 5 de julio de 2017, https://bit.ly/3fnGTNS (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

DESTRADI, S. y J. PLAGEMANN, “Populism and international relations: (Un)predictability, personalisation, and the reinforcement of existing trends in world politics”, Review of International Studies, 45 (5), 2019, pp. 711–730.

DUPIN, Eric, “Politique: ‘Populiste’, une injure riche de sens”, Slate, 4 de mayo de 2013, https://bit.ly/2TSAent (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

FREIDENBERG, Flavia, “El flautista de Hammelin. Liderazgo y populismo en la democracia ecuatoriana”, en Carlos de la Torre y Enrique Peruzzoti (eds.), El retorno del pueblo: populismo y nuevas democracias en América Latina, Quito, Flacso Ecuador, 2008, pp. 189-237.

FLEURANT, Aude et al., “Trends in International Arms Trade, 2020”, SIPRI Fact Sheet, marzo de 2021, https://bit.ly/3fmR2dN (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

GANGULY, Sumit (ed.), Engaging the World: Indian Foreign Policy since 1947, Nueva Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2016.

GANGULY, Sumit y Nicolas Blarel, “Modi Walks A Political Tightrope With Israel”, Foreign Policy, 18 de mayo de 2021, https://bit.ly/3rS2HX9 (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

GAUR, Vatzala, “Shias, traditional BJP backers, divided over CAA”, The Economic Times, 8 de marzo de 2020, https://bit.ly/3s55H4c (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

GHAREKHAN, Chinmaya, “India- Israel: Retrospective and Prospective”, Strategic Analysis, vol. 41, 2017, pp. 314-324, https://doi.org/10.1080/09700161.2017.1330443

GHATAK, Maitreesh y Sanchari ROY, “Did Gujarat’s Growth Rate Accelerate under Modi?”, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 49, 2014, pp. 12-15 https://bit.ly/37fdgd1 (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

Global Terrorism Index 2020, Institute for Economics & Peace, noviembre de 2020, https://bit.ly/3frAykJ (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

GOWEN, Annie y Rama LAKSHMI, “Modi Promises a ‘Shining India’ in Victory Speech”, The Washington Post, 16 de mayo de 2014, https://wapo.st/2Vi08lb (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

GUPTA, Dipankar, The Context of Ethnicity: Identity in a Comparative Perspective, Nueva Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1996.

HAYNES, Jeffrey, “Religion and Foreign Policy Making in the USA, India and Iran: Towards a Research Agenda”, Third World Quarterly, vol. 29, 2008, pp. 143-165, https://doi.org/10.1080/01436590701739668

HOLSTI, K.J., “National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy”, International Studies Quarterly, vol.14, 1970, pp. 233-309, https://doi.org/10.2307/3013584

HOUGHTON, David Patrick, “Reinvigorating the study of foreign policy decision making toward a constructivist approach”, Foreign Policy Analysis, vol. 3, 2007, pp. 24-45, 10.1111/j.1743-8594.2007.00040.x

HUDSON, Valerie, “Foreign Policy Analysis: Actor-Specific Theory and the Ground of International Relations”, Foreign Policy Analysis, vol. 1, 2005, pp. 1-30, 10.1111/j.1743-8594.2005.00001.x

INBAR, Efraim, “Israel and India: Looking Back and Ahead”, Strategic Analysis, vol. 41, 2017, pp. 369-383, https://doi.org/10.1080/09700161.2017.1330450

“Increasing reputation of India due to PM Modi: Sushma Swaraj in Singapore”, Times Now Digital, 7 de enero de 2018, https://bit.ly/3jc5dn2 (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

“Israeli PM Netanyahu to pay ‘dear friend Modi’ a visit in January”, Hindustan Times, 25 de octubre de 2017, https://bit.ly/2VvaDBb (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

IZUYAMA, Mari, “India: The Foreign and Security Policy under the Modi Government”, East Asian Strategic Review 2015, National Institute for Defense Studies, 2015, pp.171-202 https://bit.ly/2Vtsdpe (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

JAFFRELOT, Christophe, “The Modi-Centric BJP 2014 Election Campaign: New Techniques and Old Tactics”, Contemporary South Asia, vol. 23, 2015, pp. 151-166, https://doi.org/10.1080/09584935.2015.1027662

JAFFRELOT, Christophe, L’Inde de Modi: national-populisme et démocratie ethnique, París, Fayar, 2019.

JAFFRELOT, Christophe y Louise TILLIN, “Populism in India”, en Kaltwasser, C. Rovira et al (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Populism, Oxford, University Press, 2017, pp.179-194, 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198803560.013.7

JAFFRELOT, Christophe y Jean-Thomas MARTELLI, “Reading PM Modi, through his Speeches”, The Indian Express, 15 de agosto de 2017.

JANGID, Khinvraj, “Modi Visit: How Israel Went From ‘Contaminated’ by Colonialism to India’s Strategic Ally”, Haaretz, 4 de julio de 2017, https://bit.lª/3A54haP (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

JOHNY, Stanly, “At un, India supports Palestine, but without specifics”, The Hindu, 17 de mayo de 2021.

KAARBO, Juliet y M. G. HERMANN, “Leadership styles of prime ministers: How individual differences affect the foreign policymaking process”, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 9, núm. 3, pp. 243-263.

KAURA, Vinay, “India’s Israel Challenge”, The Diplomat, 29 de octubre de 2016, https://bit.ly/3ftQDGy (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

KAZIN, Michael, The Populist Persuasion: An American History, Nueva York, Basic Books, 1995.

KEINON, Herb, “Netanyahu: Modi is Revolutionizing Israel-India Ties”, Jerusalem Post, 17 de enero de 2018, https://bit.ly/3CMG3ob (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

KENNY, Paul D., Populism and Patronage: Why Populists Win Elections in India, Asia and Beyond, Oxford, University Press, 2017.

KUCHAY, Bilal, “Why Indian Hindutva supporters back Israel on Gaza bombing”, Al Jazeera, 18 de mayo de 2021, https://bit.ly/3ymaE9r (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

KUMARASWAMY, P.R., India’s Israel Policy, Nueva York, Columbia University Press, 2010.

LUKES, Steven, Power: A radical view, Londres, Macmillan Press, 2005.

MALHOTRA, Shairee. “Explaining India’s un Vote on Jerusalem”, The Diplomat, 28 de diciembre de 2017, https://thediplomat.com/2017/12/explaining-indias-un-vote-on-jerusalem/ (consulta del 1 de marzo de 2022).

MALONE, David, Does the elephant Dance?: Contemporary Indian Foreign Policy, Oxford, University Press, 2011.

MCGIRK, Tim, “Israel Reacts to the Mumbai Massacre”, Time, 28 de noviembre de 2008, https://bit.ly/2TPAaoi (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

MISHRA, Atul y Jason MIKLIAN, “The evolving domestic drivers of Indian foreign policy”, NOREF Report, enero de 2016, https://bit.ly/2VvbamF, (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

“Modi-Netanyahu bonhomie: Israeli PM ready to do yoga with 'friend Narendra'”, Economic Times, 15 de enero de 2018, https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/62512382.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst (consulta del 1 de marzo de 2022).

MOHAN, Siddhant, “Shia Muslims in Uttar Pradesh likely to support BJP, say saffron party is inclusive and gave them important positions”, Firstpost, 16 de febrero de 2019, https://bit.ly/3H3uZDU (consulta del 20 de febrero de 2022).

MOUFFE, Chantal, “El ‘fin de la política’ y el desafío del populismo de derecha”, en Francisco Panizza (comp.), El populismo como espejo de la democracia, Ciudad de México, FCE, 2005, pp. 71-96.

NAGAR, Bhratpur, “Advani attacks Manmohan, calls him ‘weak’ yet again”, Hindustan Times, 4 de mayo de 2009, https://bit.ly/2Vts45a (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

NAIR, Dhirenn, “India’s Israel Disconnect: Rhetoric vs. Reality”, The Diplomat, 16 de junio de 2016, https://bit.lª/3A6RV1X (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

NANDY, Debasish, “India’s policy options in middle-east: challenges and opportunities”, Journal of Historical Archaeology & Anthropological Sciences, vol. 5, 2020, pp. 87-93, 10.15406/jhaas.2020.05.00221

NEWMAN, Marissa, “India’s new foreign minister a strong fan of Israel”, The Times of Israel, 27 de mayo de 2014, https://bit.ly/3jkiqdn (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

Oficina de Información y Prensa (PIB), “List of MoUs/Agreements signed during the visit of Prime Minister of Israel to India”, 15 de enero de 2018, https://bit.ly/3xmbK3q (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

OGDEN, Chris, “Norms, Indian Foreign Policy and the 1998-2004 National Democratic Alliance”, The Round Table, vol. 99, 2010, pp. 303-315, https://doi.org/10.1080/00358533.2010.484146

OGDEN, Chris, Indian Foreign Policy, Cambridge, Polity Press, 2014.

OGDEN, Chris, “FPC Briefing-Thinking Big: Modi’s Foreign Policy Priorities for India”, The Foreign Policy Center, 19 de enero de 2018, https://bit.ly/37iUhOY (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

OZA, Rupal, “Contrapuntual geographies of threat and security: the Unites States, India and Israel”, Environment and Planning: Society and Space, vol. 25, 2007, pp. 9-32, https://doi.org/10.1068/d1404

PANDYA, Abhinay, “Modi’s India Has Chosen Israel Over Palestine”, Haaretz, 10 de junio de 2021, https://bit.ly/37lxLVH (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

PANIZZA, Francisco, “What Do We Mean when We Talk About Populism”, en Carlos de la Torre y Cynthia J. Arnson, Latin American Populism in the XXI Century, Quito, Flacso Ecuador, 2013, pp. 85-115.

PANT, Harsh V., “An India-Israel Entente”, The Diplomat, 26 de noviembre de 2016, https://bit.ly/2WHXPYS (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

PANT, Harsh V., “India-Israel Ties gather Momentum”, The Diplomat, 23 de enero de 2018, https://bit.ly/3jh9HJc (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

PERUZZOTI, Enrique, “Populism in Democratic Times: Populism, Representative Democracy, and the Debate on Democratic Deepening”, en Carlos de la Torre y Cynthia J. Arnson, Latin American Populism in the XXI Century, Quito, Flacso Ecuador, 2013, pp. 61-84.

RAHMAN, Shafeeq, “India’s Middle East Balancing Act”, The Diplomat, 23 de junio de 2017, https://bit.ly/3ijNIlq (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

RAMAN, Sunil, “Sharon’s Historic India Visit”, BBC, 8 de septiembre de 2003, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3088780.stm (consulta del 1 de marzo de 2022).

ROODUIJN, Matthijs y Teun PAWELS, “Measuring Populism in Comparative Research: Two Content Analysis Methods Compared”, West European Politics, vol. 36, 2011, pp. 1272-1283, https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2011.616665

SAAVEDRA, Beatriz, “Entre crecimiento económico y tensión social: las elecciones de 2014”, en Andrés Ríos Molina (coord.), Historia, sociedad y política en India contemporánea: miradas interdisciplinarias, Ciudad de México, UNAM, 2016, pp. 147-167.

SABERIN, Zeenat, “What’s Behind Narendra Modi’s High Popularity in India?”, Al Jazeera, 20 de noviembre de 2017, https://bit.ly/3lw6uYP (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

SAVARKAR, Vinayak Damodar, Who is a Hindu?, India, Bhave (P). Ltd., 1923, pp.102-116, https://bit.ly/3AaJgM7 (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

SCHAFFER, Teresita C. y Howard B. SCHAFFER, India at the Global High Table, Washington, Brookings Institution Press, 2016.

SCHMITTER, C., Phillip, “A Balance Sheet of the Vices and Virtues of ‘Populisms’”, European University Institute and Central European Institute, https://bit.ly/3ildZzN (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

SEN, Somdeep, “India’s deepening love affair with Israel”, Al-Jazeera, 9 de septiembre de 2021.

SIROHI, Seema, “Lost Tribes, Reunited”, Outlook India, 26 de mayo de 2003, https://bit.ly/30cyxnT (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

SMITH, Jeff M., “Waking the Beast: India’s Defense Reforms Under Modi”, The Diplomat, 16 de diciembre de 2016. https://thediplomat.com/2016/12/waking-the-beast-indias-defense-reforms-under-modi/

SUBRAMANIAN, Narendra, “Populism in India”, SAIS Review of International Affairs, vol. 27, 2007, pp. 81-91, 10.1353/sais.2007.0019

SUMIT, Kumar, “How Modi Changed the India-U.S. Relationship”, East Asia Forum, mayo de 2016, https://bit.ly/37feTr9 (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

TAYLOR, Adam, “Narendra Modi May Join the List of World Leaders Who Don’t Want to Speak English”, The Washington Post, 5 de junio de 2014, https://wapo.st/3xnzgNJ (consulta del 22 de marzo 2018).

“Two cheers for two years of Modi government”, Hindustan Times, 25 de mayo de 2016, https://bit.ly/3rNP6Qw (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

TIRUMURTI, T.S., “India Statement at the UN General Assembly Debate on the situation in the Middle East/Question of Palestine”, 15 de julio de 2021, https://bit.ly/3lq5kOq (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

U.S. Department of State, “India”, en International Religious Report 2003, https://bit.ly/3rOZJmd (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

VERBEEK, Bertjan y Andrej ZAZLOV, “Populism and Foreign Policy”, en C. R. Kaltwasser et al., The Oxford Handbook of Populism. Oxford, University Press, 2017, pp. 386-405, 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198803560.013.15

VERMA, Rahul y Shashwat DHAR, “The Muslims voting for the BJP are richer, more educated and conservative”, The Print, 21 de septiembre de 2018, https://bit.ly/3H4Vfhl (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

WAYLAND, Kurt, “Clarifying a Contested Concept: Populism in the Study of Latin American Politics”, Comparative Politics, núm. 1, 2001, pp. 1-22, https://doi.org/10.2307/422412

WEBER, Max, Economía y Sociedad, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1968.

WOJCZEWSKI, Thorsten, “Populism, Hindu Nationalism, and Foreign Policy in India: The Politics of Representing “the People”, International Studies Review, vol. 22, núm. 3, 2020, pp. 396-422.

WORKMAN, Daniel, “India’s Top Trading Partners”, World’s Top Exports, https://bit.ly/3jgDcut (consulta del 31 de julio de 2021).

YACK, Bernard, “Popular Sovereignty and Nationalism”, Political Theory, vol.29 (2001), pp. 517-536, https://doi.org/10.1177/0090591701029004003

Descargas

Publicado

2022-03-29
  • Resumen visto - 355 veces
  • PDF descargado: 341 veces
  • XML descargado: 0 veces

Número

Sección

Artículos