¿Promesas idealistas? América Latina en tiempos de la Responsabilidad de Proteger.

Mónica del Carmen Serrano Carreto

Resumen


La inclusión del principio de la Responsabilidad de Proteger (RdeP) y su cristalización en los párrafos 138 y 139 del Documento Final de la Cumbre Mundial de 2005 no hubiese sido posible sin el apoyo de un grupo importante de países latinoamericanos. Este artículo analiza los factores que explican la simpatía que el principio despertó entre algunos países de la región, así como las razones que otros países han aducido para justificar su rechazo a la RdeP. Destaca, en primer lugar, el peso del régimen de derechos humanos en América Latina, así como el entorno propicio de la ola democratizadora en la región. Sin embargo, una de las claves para entender el respaldo a un principio que busca prevenir la perpetración de crímenes atroces, aun a riesgo de intervención, se encuentra en la experiencia misma de crímenes de lesa humanidad.

Palabras clave


derechos humanos; crímenes atroces; crímenes de lesa humanidad; intervención humanitaria

Texto completo:

PDF XML

Referencias


Basombrío Iglesias, Carlos, “Transitional Justice and Democratic Consolidation: The Peruvian Experience”, en Mónica Serrano y Vesselin Popovski (eds.), After Opression: Transitional Justice in Latin America and Eastern Europe, Tokio, United Nations University Press, 2012, pp. 222-241.

BBC News, “Extradited Fujimori back in Peru”, 22 de septiembre de 2007, disponible en http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7008302.stm

Bermeo, Nancy, Ordinary People in Extraordinary Times: The Citizenry and the Breakdown of Democracy, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2003.

Booth, Ken y Tim Dunne, “Learning beyond Frontiers”, en Tim Dunne y Nicholas Wheeler (eds.), Human Rights in Global Politics, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999, cap. 12, pp. 303-328

Burt, Jo-Marie, “Guilty as Charged: The Trial of Former Peruvian Presi-dent Alberto Fujimori for Human Rights Violations”, The Internatio-nal Journal of Transitional Justice, vol. 3, 2009.

Carothers, Thomas. “The Resurgence of US Political Development Assistance to Latin America in the 1980s”, en Laurence Whitehead (ed.), The International Dimensions of Democratization. Europe and the Americas, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001, pp. 128-136.

Couffignal, Georges, La nouvelle Amérique Latine. Laboratoire politique de l’Occident, París, Presses de Science Po, 2013.

Dewar, Diego y Mónica Serrano, “México y la Responsabilidad de Proteger”, en Guadalupe González, Olga Pellicer y Natalia Saltalamacchia (eds.), México y el Multilateralismo del siglo XXI, México, Siglo XXI Editores, 2015, pp. 170-206.

Domingo, Pilar, “Accountability: The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Latin America”, en Mónica Serrano y Vesselin Popovski (eds.), After Opression: Transitional Justice in Latin America and Eastern Europe, Tokio, United Nations University Press, 2012, pp. 41-63.

Domínguez, Jorge I., “International Cooperation in Latin America. The Design of Regional Institutions by Slow Accretion”, enAmitav Acharya y Alastair I. Johnston (eds.), Crafting Cooperation: Regional International Institutions in Comparative Perspective, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. 83-128.

Donnelly, Jack, “Universal Human Rights: A Critique”, en Tim Dunne y Nicholas Wheeler (eds.), Human Rights in Global Politics, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Engstrom, Par y Andrew Hurrell, “Why the Human Rights Regime in the Americas Matters”, en Mónica Serrano y Vesselin Popovski (eds.), Human Rights Regimes in the Americas, Tokio, United Nations Universi-ty Press, 2010, pp. 29-55.

Farer, Tom, “The Rise of the Inter-American Human Rights Regime: No Longer a Unicorn, Not Yet an Ox”, Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 17, 1997.

Foweraker, Joe y Roman Krznaric, “The Uneven Performances of Third Wave Democracies: Electoral Politics and the Imperfect Rule of Law in Latin America”, Latin American Politics and Society, vol. 44, núm. 2, 2002, pp. 35-37.

Foweraker, Joe y Todd Landman, “Constitutional Design and Democratic Performance”, Democratization, vol. 9, núm. 2, 2002, pp. 43-66.

Fitch, Samuel J., The Armed Forces and Democracy in Latin America, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Frank, Thomas M., “The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance”, American Journal of International Law, vol. 86, núm. 1, enero de 1992.

Fuentes, Claudio, “The Unlikely Outcome: Transitional Justice in Chile 1990-2008”, en Mónica Serrano y Vesselin Popovski (eds.), After Op-pression: Transitional Justice in Latin America and Eastern Europe, Tokio, United Nations University Press, 2012, pp. 116-142.

Garretón Manuel Antonio, “Human Rights in Processes of Democratization”, Journal of Latin American Studies, vol. 26, 1994, pp. 221-234.

Goldman, Robert K., “History and Action: The Inter-American Human Rights System and the Role of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights”, Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 31, 2009.

Goldstone, Richard J., “The Role of the ICC”, en Robert I. Rotberg (ed.), Mass Atrocity Crimes: Preventing Future Outrages, Washington, D. C., Brookings Institution Press, 2010, pp. 55-68.

González Ocantos, Ezequiel, “Persuade them or Oust Them”, Comparative Politics, vol. 46, núm. 4, 2014, pp. 479-498.

Hubert, Don, “The Landmine Ban: A Case Study in Humanitarian Advocacy”, con un prefacio de S. Neil MacFarlane, Providence, The Tho-mas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies, Brown University, 2000, 93 pp. (Occasional Papers, 42), disponible en: http://www.wats oninstitute.org/pub/op42.pdf

Human Rights Watch, “Brazil: Panel Details ‘Dirty War’ Atrocities: Truth Commission Identifies Abusers, Calls for Prosecutions”, 10 de diciembre de 2014, disponible en http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/12/10/brazil-panel-details-dirty-war-atrocities

Hurrell, Andrew, “International Society and the Study of Regimes. A Reflective Approach”, en Wolker Rittberg (con Peter Mayer) (ed.), Re-gime Theory and International Relations, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1993, pp. 206-226.

______, “An Emerging Security Community in South America”, en Em-manuel Adler y Michael Barnett (eds.), Security Communities, Cam-bridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 228-264.

______, “Regional Powers and the Global System from a Historical Perspective”, en Daniel Flemes (ed.), Regional Leadership in the Global System: Ideas, Interests and Strategies of Regional Powers, Farnham, Ashgate, 2010, pp. 15-30.

Kai, Ambos, Ezequiel Malarino y Gisela Elsner (eds.), Sistema interamericano de protección de los derechos humanos y derecho penal internacional, Montevideo, Fundación Konrad Adenauer, 2010.

Loveman, Brian, For La Patria: Politics and the Armed Forces in Latin America, Wilmington, Scholarly Resources, 1999.

______y Thomas M. Davis (eds.), The Politics of Antipolitics: The Military in Latin America, 3a ed., rev. y amp., Oxford, Scholarly Resources, 1997.

Lowenthal, Abraham F., “Two Hundred Years of American Foreign Policy: The United States and Latin America: Ending the Hegemonic Presumption”, Foreign Affairs, octubre de 1976.

Macaulay, Fiona, “Human Rights in Context: Brazil”, en Mónica Serrano y Vesselin Popovski (eds.), Human Rights Regimes in the Americas, Tokio, United Nations University Press, 2010, pp. 133-155.

Mejía, Daniel y Pascual Restrepo, “The War on Illegal Drug Production and Trafficking: An Economic Evaluation of Plan Colombia”, Documentos Cede, 19, Universidad de los Andes, cede, octubre de 2008.

Morsink, Johannes, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, Drafting, and Intent, Filadelfia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

Moyne Samuel, “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 in the History of Cosmopolitanism”, Critical Inquiry, vol. 40, núm. 4, 2014.

Muñoz, Heraldo, “The OAS and Democratic Governance”, Journal of Democracy, vol. 4, núm. 3, julio de 1993.

______, “Cómo hacer frente a la creciente violencia en el Caribe”, PNUD, 20 de marzo de 2012, disponible en http://www.undp.org/content/undp/es/home/ourperspective/ourperspectivearticles/2012/03/20/how-to-address-surging-violence-in-the-caribbean-heraldo-mu-oz-/

______, “Violencia y crimen: siguen siendo moneda corriente en Améri-ca Latina”, pnud, 31 de enero de 2013, disponible en http://www.undp.org/content/undp/es/home/ourperspective/ourperspecti-vearticles/2013/01/31/violence-crime-still-plague-latin-america-he-raldo-munoz.html

Ochoa, Paulina, “Paradoxes of Popular Sovereignty: A View from Spanish America”, The Journal of Politics, vol. 74, núm. 4, octubre de 2012.

Odelberg, Wilhelm (ed.), Les Prix Nobel: The Nobel Prizes 1982,Estocolmo, Nobel Foundation, 1983.

Padgen, Anthony, “Human Rights, Natural Rights and European Imperial Legacy”, Political Theory, vol. 31, núm. 2, abril de 2003

Pion-Berlin, David, The Ideology of State Terror: Economic Doctrine and Political Repression in Argentina and Peru, Boulder, Lynne Rienner, 1989.

______, Civil-Military Relations in Latin America: New Analytical Perspectives, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Potash, Robert A., The Army and Politics in Argentina, 1945-1962: Perón to Frondizi, Londres, The Athione Press, 1980.

Restrepo, Elvira María. “Transitional Justice without a Compass: Paramilitary Demobilization in Colombia”, en Mónica Serrano y Vesselin Popovski (eds.), After Opression: Transitional Justice in Latin America and Eastern Europe, Tokio, United Nations University Press, 2012, pp. 143-169.

Rock, David P., “Military Politics in Argentina 1966-1973”, en Brian Loveman y Thomas J. Davies (eds.), The Politics of Antipolitics: The Military in Latin America, Lincoln, University of Nebraska, 1978.

Romero, Simón, “Court Approves Extradition of Fujimori”, The New York Times, 21 de septiembre de 2007, disponible en http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/21/world/americas/22chile.html?fta=y&_r=0

Rotberg Robert I., “Deterring Mass Atrocity Crimes: The Cause of Our Era”, en Robert I. Rotberg (ed.), Mass Atrocity Crimes: Preventing Future Outrages, Washington, D. C., Brookings Institution Press, 2010, pp. 1-24.

Serrano, Mónica, “Latin America: The Dilemmas of intervention”, en Albrecht Schnabel y Ramesh Thakur (eds.), Kosovo and the Challenge of Humanitarian Intervention: Selective Indignation, Collective Action and International Citizenship, Tokio, United Nations University Press, 2000, pp. 223-244.

______, “The Human Rights Regime in the Americas: Theory and Reality”, en Mónica Serrano y Vesselin Popovski (eds.), Human Rights Regimes in the Americas, Tokio, United Nations University Press, 2010, pp. 1-28.

______, “Transitional Justice and Democratic Consolidation”, en Mónica Serrano y Vesselin Popovski (eds.), After Opression: Transitional Justice in Latin America and Eastern Europe, Tokio, United Nations University Press, 2012, pp. 463-484.

Sikkink, Kathryn, “Human Rights, Principled Issue-Networks, and Sovereignty in Latin America”, International Organization, vol. 47, núm. 3, verano de 1993.

______, Mixed Signals: US Human Rights Policy towards Latin America, Itha-ca, Cornell University Press, 2004.

______, The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions Are Changing World Politics, Nueva York y Londres, W. W. Norton & Company, 2011.

______, “Latin American Countries as Norm Protagonists of the Idea of International Human Rights”, sección especial de “Principles from the Periphery: The Neglected Southern Sources of Global Norms”, Global Governance, vol. 20, núm. 3, julio-septiembre de 2014.

Small Arms Survey 2012, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Smulovitz, Catalina, “‘The Past Is Never Dead’: Accountability and Justice for Past Human Rights Violations in Argentina”, en Mónica Serrano y Vesselin Popovski (eds.), After Oppression: Transitional Justice in Latin America and Eastern Europe, Tokio, United Nations University Press, 2012, pp. 64-85.

Stepan, Alfred C., The Military in Politics: Changing Patterns in Brazil, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1971.

______, Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and the Southern Cone, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1988.

Stohl, Rachel y Dough Tuttle, “The Small Arms Trade in Latin America”, NACLA Report on the Americas, Nueva York, marzo-abril de 2008.

Tanner, Lauri R., “Interview with Judge Antônio A. Cançado Trindade, Inter-American Court of Human Rights”, Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 31, núm. 4, noviembre de 2009, pp. 985-1005.

Valenzuela, Arturo, “Six Years of Military Rule in Chile: A Rapporteur’s Report”, Washington, D. C., Woodrow Wilson Center, Latin American Program, Working Papers 109, 1982.

Valenzuela, Samuel J. y Arturo Valenzuela (eds.), Military Rule in Chile: Dictatorship and Oppositions, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.

Whitehead, L., “Democratization and Human Rights in the Americas”, en Louise Fawcett y Mónica Serrano (eds.), Regionalism and Governance in the Americas: Continental Drift, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2005, pp. 221-234.

______, Latin America: A New Interpretation, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2006.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24201/fi.v57i1.2363

Métricas de artículo

Vistas Resumen.
Número total de vistas al resumen de este artículo.
a description of the source 317
Esta revista








Cargando métricas ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




Foro Internacional, 1960-. Revista trimestral de investigación científica publicada por El Colegio de México. Contacto: revfi@colmex.mx. Director: Juan Cruz Olmeda. Reserva de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo 04-1989-000000000102-102 del 13 de enero de 1989; Reserva de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo para la versión electrónica 04-2016-031810410500-203 del 18 de marzo de 2016; ISSN 0185-013; e-ISSN 2448-6523, otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor. Centro de Estudios Internacionales, El Colegio de México. Carretera Picacho Ajusco 20, Ampliación Fuentes del Pedregal, Tlalpan 14110, Ciudad de México, México. Fecha de última modificación: 23 de mayo de 2017.

Licencia de Creative Commons Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional